Mountain Views News, Combined Edition Saturday, July 18, 2020

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Mountain Views News Saturday, July 4, 2020 OUR CONSTITUTION! B5 
Mountain Views News Saturday, July 4, 2020 
greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors 
appointed; and if there be more than one who have such 
Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the 
House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by 
Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a 
Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said 
House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in 
chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, 
the Representation from each State having one Vote; A 
quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or 
Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority 
of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having 
the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the 
Vice President. But if there should remain two or more 
who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them 
by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the 
Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their 
Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the 
United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen 
of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; 
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who 
shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, 
and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United 
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, 
or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge 
the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall 
devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by 
law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation 
or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, 
declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his 
Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be 
encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he 
shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within 
that Period any other Emolument from the United States, 
or any of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall 
take the following Oath or Affirmation:– I do solemly 
swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office 
of President of the United States, and will to the best of 
my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Section 2 
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army 
and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of 
the several States, when called into the actual Service 
of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in 
writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive 
Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of 
their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United 
States, except in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent 
of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of 
the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, 
and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, 
shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are 
not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest 
the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think 
proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in 
the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies 
that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by 
granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of 
their next Session. 

Section 3 
He shall from time to time give to the Congress 
Information of the State of the Union, and recommend 
to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge 
necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary 
Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and 
in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect 
to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to 
such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take 
Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall 
Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

Section 4 
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of 
the United States, shall be removed from Office on 
Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, 
or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 

Section 1 
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested 
in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts 
as the Congress may from time to time ordain and 
establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior 
Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, 
and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a 
Compensation, which shall not be diminished during 
their Continuance in Office. 

Section 2 
The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws 
of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under their Authority;---to all Cases affecting 

Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to 
all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to 
Controversies to which the United States shall be a 
Party;---to Controversies between two or more States;--between 
a State and Citizens of another State;---between 
Citizens of different States,---between Citizens of the 
same State claiming Lands under Grants of different 
States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public 
Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State 
shall be a Party, the supreme Court shall have original 
Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the 
Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as 
to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such 
Regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, 
shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State 
where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but 
when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be 
at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have 

Section 3 
Treason against the United States, shall consist only 
in levying War against them, or in adhering to their 
Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall 
be convicted of Treason unless on the testimony of two 
Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in 
open court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment 
of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work 
Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the 
Life of the Person attainted. 

Section 1 
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the 
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every 
other State. And the Congress may by general Laws 
prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and 
Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. 

Section 2 
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all 
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or 
other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found 
in another State, shall on Demand of the executive 
Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, 
under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, 
in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be 
discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be 
delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service 
or Labour may be due. 

Section 3 
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected 
within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State 
be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts 
of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the 
States concerned as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all 
needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory 
or other Property belonging to the United States; and 
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as 
to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any 
particular State. 

Section 4 
The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and 
shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on 
Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when 
the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall 
deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this 
Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures 
of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention 
for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, 
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of 
this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 
three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions 
in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of 
Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided 
that no Amendment which may be made prior to the 
Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any 
Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth 
Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its 
Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the 

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, 
before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as 
valid against the United States under this Constitution, 
as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States 
which shall be madein Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the 
United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; 
and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, 
any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the 
Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, 
and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and 
all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United 
States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath 
or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no 
religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to 
any Office or public Trust under the United States. 

Article VII 
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall 
be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution 
between the States so ratifying the Same. 

First Amendment 
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment 
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or 
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the 
right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Second Amendment 
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security 
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear 
Arms, shall not be infringed. 

Third Amendment 
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any 
house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of 
war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

Fourth Amendment 
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, 
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable 
searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no 
Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported 
by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the 
place to be searched, and the persons or things to be 

Fifth Amendment 
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or 
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or 
indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in 
the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual 
service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any 
person be subject for the same offence to be twice put 
in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in 
any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process 
of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, 
without just compensation. 

Sixth Amendment 
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of 
the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature 
and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him; to have compulsory process 
for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the 
Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 

Seventh Amendment 
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy 
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury 
shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall 
be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United 
States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

Eighth Amendment 
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Ninth Amendment 
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, 
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others 
retained by the people. 

Tenth Amendment 
The powers not delegated to the United States by the 
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are 
reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

Eleventh Amendment 
The Judicial power of the United States shall not 
be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, 
commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or 
Subjects of any Foreign State. 

Twelfth Amendment 
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and 
vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of 
whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same 
state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots 
the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots 
the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, 
and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the 
number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and 
certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the 
Senate;–The President of the Senate shall, in the presence 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted;–The 
person having the greatest number of votes for President, 
shall be the President, if such number be a majority of 
the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person 
have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those 
voted for as President, the House of Representatives 
shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, 
the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or 
members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority 
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if 

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