Mountain Views News, Pasadena Edition [Sierra Madre] Saturday, November 11, 2017

MVNews this week:  Page A:11

Mountain Views-News Saturday, NOVEMBER 11, 2017 11THE WORLD AROUND US 
Mountain Views-News Saturday, NOVEMBER 11, 2017 11THE WORLD AROUND US 
Heat from friction could power hydrothermal 
activity on Saturn’s moon Enceladus for billions 
of years if the moon has a highly porous core, 
according to a new modeling study by European 
and U.S. researchers working on NASA’s Cassini 

The study helps resolve a question scientists have 
grappled with for a decade: Where does the energy 
to power the extraordinary geologic activity on 
Enceladus come from? 

Cassini found that Enceladus sprays towering, 
geyser-like jets of water vapor and icy particles, 
including simple organics, from warm fractures 
near its south pole. Additional investigation 
revealed the moon has a global ocean beneath 
its icy crust, from which the jets are venting into 
space. Multiple lines of evidence from Cassini 
indicate that hydrothermal activity—hot water 
interacting chemically with rock—is taking place 
on the seafloor. 

One of those lines was the detection of tiny rock 
grains inferred to be the product of hydrothermal 
chemistry taking place at temperatures of at least 
194 degrees Fahrenheit. The amount of energy 
required to produce these temperatures is more 
than scientists think could be provided by decay of 
radioactive elements in the interior. 

“Where Enceladus gets the sustained power to 
remain active has always been a bit of a mystery, 
but we’ve now considered in greater detail how the 
structure and composition of the moon’s rocky core 
could play a key role in generating the necessary 
energy,” said the study’s lead author, Gaël Choblet 
from the University of Nantes in France.

Choblet and co-authors found that a loose, 
rocky core with 20 to 30 percent empty space 
would do the trick. Their simulations show that 
as Enceladus orbits Saturn, rocks in the porous 
core flex and rub together, generating heat. The 
loose interior also allows water from the ocean to 
percolate deep down, where it heats up, then rises, 
interacting chemically with the rocks. The models 
show this activity should be at a maximum at the 
moon’s poles. Plumes of the warm, mineral-laden 
water gush from the seafloor and travel upward, 
thinning the moon’s ice shell from beneath to only 
half a mile to 3 miles at the south pole. 

The study is the first to explain several key 
characteristics of Enceladus observed by Cassini: 
the global ocean, internal heating, thinner ice at the 
south pole, and hydrothermal activity. It doesn’t 
explain why the north and south poles are so 
different, though. Unlike the tortured, geologically 
fresh landscape of the south, Enceladus’ northern 
extremes are heavily cratered and ancient. The 
authors note that if the ice shell was slightly 
thinner in the south to begin with, it would lead to 
runaway heating there over time. 
The researchers estimate that, over time 
(between 25 and 250 million years), the entire 
volume of Enceladus’ ocean passes through the 
moon’s core. This is estimated to be an amount of 
water equal to two percent of the volume of Earth’s 
Flexing of Enceladus’ icy crust due to the tidal 
pull of Saturn had previously been considered as 
a heat source, but models showed this would not 
produce enough sustained power. The ocean in 
Enceladus would have frozen within 30 million 
Launched in 1997, the Cassini spacecraft orbited 
Saturn from 2004 to 2017. Cassini made numerous 
dramatic discoveries, including the surprising 
activity on Enceladus and liquid methane seas 
on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Cassini ended 
its journey with a dramatic plunge into Saturn’s 
atmosphere on Sept. 15, 2017, returning unique 
science data until it lost contact with Earth. 
You can contact Bob Eklund at: b.eklund@ 


[Nyerges is the author ofthe past, and is over. The future is the unknown. It 
numerous books, includingis only the present that is our real gift. There fore, we 
“How To Survive Anywhere”need to simply focus on the present, and not let ourand “Enter the Forest.” He minds run away in the past or the future.
can be reached at Box 41834, Death. Yes, we will all die. We will. And so? 
Eagle Rock, CA 90041, or Accept it, and then live your life fully.]Suffering and pain. Again, Vergara said, yes, life

I have often wondered how the commemoration is full of suffering and pain. That’s life. It has nothingof All Hallows Eve, or Hallowe’en, has devolved to do with 2012. 
into a day of choosing to face our fears in a fun way,Concern for our families. Vergara smiled and said,
and to eat a lot of candy. It is what I did as a child, “They will survive without us.” He acknowledgeddressing up in a costume, screaming, pretending tothat everyone is concerned about their families andbe frightened, and collecting lots of candy. Yes, it this is natural. But we need not have an imbalanced 
was fun, but it was also somewhat unfulfilling. As Iworry about whether or not someone else might orgrew older, I wanted to know what it was all about,might not survive a situation. Just carry on with 
and why we all went through the motions of the day,living your life.
year after year.Lastly, he addressed the notion of losing things. 

When this time of year was commemorated byWe will lose things, he said. That’s life. Whether in 
past cultures, it was believed to be a time when thecatastrophe or in ordinary life, we lose things. And 
dead are very close, and perhaps could be contacted.when we die, we don’t take physical things with us!
It was a day to confront our fears and conquer them,Vergara paused and said loudly, “Think! You all 
and a time to acknowledge our dearly beloveds whohave passed away.

When we speak of conquering our fears, it isworthy to note that the root of the word “conquer”
is “with” and “query,” meaning that “to conquer” isnot so much about vanquishing an enemy, as it isabout seeking knowledge, with others, about thosethings which trouble us, of which we know little.

In that sense, part of conquering our fears meansthat we should not pretend we have no fears, andavoid the subject, but we should face them directly,
and seek the root of the fear. 

When I was in Guatemala a few years ago, one ofour teachers was a man who operated a jade store andMayan museum. He talked to us about the creation 
myth from the Popul Vuh, and then began to speakabout the Long Count of the Mayan calendar.of us have ALL that you need. (He was speaking to

“But it seems like a lot of people really want thean audience of mostly Americans and Canadians).
world to end!” he said, as we all laughed. He went You have cars, money, homes, and you still suffer.
on to explain – as my group heard over and overWhat are you fearing? You are all like millionaires 

– that there are no predictions from the Mayans[sometimes he would say billionaires] compared toabout the “end of the world” or doom and gloom,most of the people in the rest of the world.
referring to the infamous 2012 date that so many“We buy what we need at the supermarket,” 
were frightened about. Some poor journalists mustVergara told us. “We have lost our inner warrior. 
have thought they heard “end of the world” when itWe are weak and we are comfortable. We don’t want 
was only “the end of one calendar cycle.”to fight. So what should we do, asked Vergara. What
“Yes, anything could happen,” he continues,is the best formula to recover this part of ourselves?
“but it’s good to stick to facts. The Maya don’t sayHe offered many solutions. He described 
anything about the end of the world. In fact, theyceremonies that we could perform to reconnecthave dates listed for several thousand years from with the earth, and our divinity. He said Love, Real 
now. If they thought the world was coming to anLove, is a part of our solution. Vergara added thatend, why did they use those dates?”“Ninety-nine percent of the time we fail to solve

Our main teacher, Miguel Angel Vergara, spokeour problems because we don’t knock on the doorafter the laughter died down.of divinity. We think that our ego will solve our 

Vergara asked us to list our fears – in general,problems. We know all the things of the outsideand about the 2012 date – as we wrote them on the world, but we don’t know our Self. Are first task is 
board. It was a very predictable list. to Know Thy Self.”

Vergara emphasized the need to avoid fear, and goThe Unknown. forward with our purpose in life. He explained thatmost people in the poorer and lesser-developed partsDeath. of the world are not worried about “the end of the 
world” predictions. Why? They are working hard,
Suffering and pain. every day, for basic survival. “Always keep in mind

that the main purpose of life is Self-Realization.”

Family. During my studies with Vergara, and otherMayan teachers, I found that they never shied awayLosing things. from talking about death, or fears in general. Theytaught us to look forward with open eyes, and toVergara then addressed these “fears” one by one. embrace others who are on the same seeking-path.
As Eric Fromme stated in his classic “Art of Loving”
Yes, the unknown is a mystery, he told us. He book, Love is the solution to the problem of human

paused, and then emphasized to us that the past is existence. 

Vergara talks about the Mayan culture..


A Weekly Religion Column by Rev. James Snyder 


This past week the Gracious Just like in the sixth grade. Our teacher gave us 
Mistress of the Parsonage a test every Friday, but when Friday came, it was a 
said to me rather casually, “I surprise to us. I guess I have brought that attitude 

guess you know today is November?”into adulthood. 

She’s always joking with me and I assumed this Getting things done is the priority of my wife, 
was one of her jokes.which she pushes off on to me. My attitude is that 
“You can’t fool me,” I said quite sarcastically, “I if it gets done, it gets done and if it doesn’t get 

know it’s October.” done, I’ll do it tomorrow. 

With that, she led me to the refrigerator where Between November and December, there are 61 
she had a calendar and pointed to me that today days. That sounds like a lot of time, but when you 
was the first day of November.have to squeeze into 61 days 999 items from the 

It was hard for me to believe it; I thought she “Honey-Do-List” it just does not seem possible. 
had made that calendar up herself. After thinking My wife, however, can do that and more in 61 
for a few moments, I concluded that she was right. days.
After all, she’s always right and I’m always leftBeing the gracious husband I have been all these 
holding the bag.years, I have never yet asked her how she does it. 

With a little bit of sadness in my voice I said to Because I know, if I asked, she will tell. There are 
her, “Where in the world did October go? I’m not some things I don’t need to know and that is one.
finished with October yet.”Another problem I have with Fall is the weather. 

“Finished or not,” she said laughingly, “October All summer long, I have grown accustomed to 
is over and it is now November.” wearing short sleeve shirts. I like short sleeve 

I like to enjoy my time and I did not believe I shirts. When Fall comes, particularly November, 
had fully enjoyed all of October yet. That's just the the weather changes and I need to step up my 
way life is. Here today, gone tomorrow. October game to long sleeve shirts.
yesterday, November today. When will all of this I don’t have any problem so to speak with long 
nonsense stop?sleeve shirts. I just prefer a short sleeve shirt. But 

I should have noticed it was November you know the weather. It demands long sleeve 
because the whole house smelled of roast turkey shirts in the Fall. Of course, when fall disappears 
in the oven. It is in November that we celebrate and winter steps up, the long sleeve shirt is 
Thanksgiving. My wife had already purchased the transferred into a sweater. And you know what 
turkey and was in the process of cooking it for sweaters are like. 
Thanksgiving.I would not mind the Fall so bad if it wasn’t so 

The only turkey we’re not really grateful for is busy. Beginning with the Halloween celebration, 
Yours Truly.whatever that is, and going all the way down the 

When Fall comes, you would think I would be road to the New Year’s Eve celebration is one 
prepared. Fall brings a different attitude in things. celebration after another. 
All of the nice warm weather is gone and now we As I was musing on all of these aspects of the 
have a little bit of Chilly Willy weather.Fall season, my wife brought me a hot apple cider 

Summertime is the time to be a little lazy tea. It is one of my favorite drinks. She said as 
and not get too worked up about anything. The she brought it to me, “I know Fall is here and I 
attitude I have during the summer is, “There’s thought you might enjoy this hot apple cider tea.”
always tomorrow.”All summer long, I had forgotten about this 

The attitude of the Gracious Mistress of the favorite drink of mine. When she brought it to 
Parsonage is, “There’s only today.”me, I could not keep a smile off of my face. After 

Summertime cultivates a sense of laziness in my first sip, I sat back in my chair and said loudly 
my bones. I can get away with doing the summer so everybody in the house could hear, “I’m glad 
because I can always complain about the heat. it’s Fall.” 
“It’s too hot to do anything today.” I usually get While I was drinking my hot apple cider tea, I 
away with it.mused on a verse from the Psalms. “This is the day 

Tripping into November that attitude and which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be 
excuse goes out the window.glad in it” (Psalm 118:24).

There is an expectancy from the other resident Every day brings it some reason to rejoice in the 
in our home that there is a lot of work to do in Lord. My job is to find that reason. 
preparation for Thanksgiving and Christmas and 
New Year’s Eve and it all has to be done now. Then, Dr. James L. Snyder is pastor of the Family of 
she produces her infamous “Honey-Do-List” and God Fellowship, 1471 Pine Road, Ocala, FL 34472. 
hands it to me. He lives with his wife in Silver Springs Shores. Call 

Oh, how I miss the summer time. him at 352-687-4240 or e-mail jamessnyder2@att.
I know Fall comes every year, but for some net. The church web site is www.whatafellowship. 
reason it always catches me by surprise. com. 

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