Mountain Views News, Sierra Madre Edition [Pasadena] Saturday, August 5, 2017

MVNews this week:  Page A:11

Mountain Views-News Saturday, August 5, 2017 11THE WORLD AROUND US 
Mountain Views-News Saturday, August 5, 2017 11THE WORLD AROUND US 
Humanity’s farthest and longest-lived spacecraft,
Voyager 1 and 2, achieve 40 years of operation andexploration this August and September. Despite theirvast distance, they continue to communicate withNASA daily, still probing the final frontier.

Their story has not only impacted generations ofcurrent and future scientists and engineers, but alsoEarth’s culture, including film, art and music. Eachspacecraft carries a Golden Record of Earth sounds,
pictures and messages. Since the spacecraft could lastbillions of years, these circular time capsules couldone day be the only traces of human civilization.

The Voyagers have set numerous records in theirunparalleled journeys. In 2012, Voyager 1, whichlaunched on Sept. 5, 1977, became the only spacecraftto have entered interstellar space. Voyager 2, launchedon Aug. 20, 1977, is the only spacecraft to have flownby all four outer planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus andNeptune.

Though the spacecraft have left the planets farbehind—and neither will come remotely close toanother star for 40,000 years—the two probes stillsend back observations about conditions where our 
Sun’s influence diminishes and interstellar space 

Voyager 1, now almost 13 billion miles from 
Earth, travels through interstellar space northwardout of the plane of the planets. The probe hasinformed researchers that cosmic rays, atomic nucleiaccelerated to nearly the speed of light, are as much asfour times more abundant in interstellar space thanin the vicinity of Earth. This means the heliosphere,
the bubble-like volume containing our solar system’splanets and solar wind, effectively acts as a radiationshield for the planets.

Voyager 2, now almost 11 billion miles from Earth,
travels south and is expected to enter interstellar spacein the next few years. The different locations of thetwo Voyagers allow scientists to compare right now

two regions of space where the heliosphere interactsspacecraft were well equipped for their subsequentwith the surrounding interstellar medium.journeys. Both Voyagers carry redundant systems

“None of us knew, when we launched 40 years ago,that allow the spacecraft to switch to backup systemsthat anything would still be working, and continuingwhen necessary, as well as long-lasting power supplies.
on this pioneering journey,” said Ed Stone, VoyagerEach Voyager has three radioisotope thermoelectricproject scientist based at Caltech.generators, devices that use the heat energy generated

The twin Voyagers have been cosmic overachievers,from the decay of plutonium-238—only half of it willthanks to the foresight of mission designers. Bybe gone after 88 years.
preparing for the radiation environment at Jupiter,Space is almost empty, so the Voyagers are not atthe harshest of all planets in our solar system, the a significant level of risk of bombardment by large 


[Nyerges is the author Here are the steps.
of “How to Survive 1. Select a clear PET plastic bottle, free of scratchesAnywhere,” “Extreme and dirt. These are relatively common and availableSimplicity,” and other world-wide. 
books. He is a regular 2. Fill the bottle . of the way with clear water and shakecontributor to American to aerate. (If the collected water is cloudly, or containsSurvival Guide magazine. suspended debris, it should first be allowed to settle inHe has led wild food and survival walks since another container, like a bucket. Then, the water should 
1974. For more information, go to www. be strained through a cloth before being poured into, or Box 41834, Eagle plastic bottle.)
Rock, CA 90041] 3. Fill the bottle the rest of the way and secure the lid


In most of the United States today, good 4. Expose the suspect water to the sun by laying thedrinking water is more-or-less taken for granted. bottles on their side, either on a roof or somewhere 
But in much of the developing world, safe drinking where shadows will not be cast on them, or ideally on awater cannot be taken for granted. Though there corrugated metal roof.
are many things in the water around the world 5. Wait about 6 hours during full sunlight before youthat can get us sick, the three major health risks drink the water.
to humans found in water are Protozoa, Viruses, Limitations of SODIS 
and Pathogens. Each one of those categories of Though very effective, SODIS is not free ofwater-borne organisms presents their own unique limitations. For one, adequate sunlight is necessary:
health hazards. During winter, when the sun is lower in the horizon,

Of these, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the the days are shorter and air is cooler, SODIS will takemost common both which pose serious health longer to work than during the summer. Cloud cover 
risks. An infection with these protozoans may also mean you’ll have to keep the bottles in the longercause chronic digestion problems which lead to than the recommended six hours. Areas in developingmalnutrition. countries, between 35 degrees north latitude and 35

degrees south latitude, are ideal for the use of SODIS. 

In the United States, most campers assume HOW LONG IN THE SUN? 
water should be boiled for a period of ten minutes, 6 hours if the sky is cloudless or up to 50% cloudy.
before drinking, just to be safe. In some countries, 2 consecutive days if the sky is more than 50%
however, the ability to boil water has proven to be cloudy.
a major obstacle, in large part because of a lack 1 hour at a water temperature of at least 122°fof firewood. Research shows all pathogens in the During days of continuous rainfall, SODIS does notwater are dead when the water reaches around perform satisfactorily. Rainwater harvesting or boiling170 degrees F. (or about 75 degrees C), so, in fact, is recommended during these dayssimply bringing the water to a boil is sufficient.Standing bottles up does not work well. For

But what if you simply cannot, or don’t deem it maximum effectiveness, you want to lay the bottles onwise, make a fire to purify your water? Is there an their side and you don’t want water deeper than tenalternative? centimeters for ideal UV penetration. 

According to various international agencies, 
such as EAWAG (Swiss Federal Institute of Advantages of using SODISEnvironmental Science and Technology) and In the aftermath of an emergency where you mustSANDEC (Department of Water Sanitation in purify water, you’re not drawing attention to yourDeveloping Countries), clear plastic water bottles location if you don’t have a fire, and this may be criticallycan serve a valuable role in disinfecting water. important. You won’t need to expend the energy of

searching for fire wood.
SODIS There is quite a bit of science behind SODIS, far

This is referred to as SODIS, for SOlar water beyond the scope of this article. For this interested,
DISinfection. So how does it work exactly? The more information can be found at 
effectiveness of SODIS takes advantage of the suns
UV rays and the process of pasteurization. This ausbildungsmaterial/dokumente_material/manual_e.
method is practiced in India, for example. pdf 

objects. However, Voyager 1’s interstellar spacecalling on the expertise of former Voyager engineers.

environment is not a complete void. It’s filled withTeam members estimate they will have to turn

clouds of dilute material remaining from stars thatoff the last science instrument by 2030. However,

exploded as supernovae millions of years ago.even after the spacecraft go silent, they’ll continueBecause the Voyagers’ power decreases by fouron at their present speed of more than 30,000 mph,

watts per year, engineers are learning how to operatecompleting an orbit within the Milky Way every 225

the spacecraft under ever-tighter power constraints.million years. 

And to maximize the Voyagers’ lifespans, they also

have to consult documents written decades earlier You can contact Bob Eklund at: b.eklund@ 

describing commands and software, in addition to 


A Weekly Religion Column by Rev. James Snyder 


During my high school career I was no thespian, however, I could act the fool 
when called upon. My friend was the thespian and starred in our senior high 
school play, "Finian's Rainbow." One of the musical numbers was, "When I'm 
not near the girl I love, 

I love the girl I'm near." 

I have altered this title a little to fit my own needs. My version goes, "When I'm not in the season I 
love, I love the season I'm in." It is a wonderful motto and has solved quite a few problems down the 
years. Just don't ask me to sing it for you. I can, but you do not want to hear it... believe me. 

At my age I have learned a thing or two. One of the things I have learned is that you might as well be 
content where you are at because that is where you are. All these people that are jumpy and nervous 
because they are not exactly where they want to be, waste a lot of precious time and energy. 

I am old enough to appreciate where I am at. I could bemoan the fact that I'm not somewhere else, 
but what good would that do. I know I'm not at my destination yet, so I am determined to enjoy the 
journey and not miss one thing along the way. 

This is the difference between the Gracious Mistress of the Parsonage and Yours Truly. 

Just the other day her Majesty was complaining about the weather. "It's so hot outside, I can hardly 

stand it." 

Of course, I could not resist saying, "Well, why don't you sit down." To which, she treated me to one 
of her infamous glares. Somehow, in the hot sunshine her glare did not have its normal effect. For 
one, she was too hot and did not have the energy to follow through on her glare. 

But I love the summer. It is a wonderful time of the year and my affection for the season goes all the 

way back to my days in school. 

I enjoy every aspect of summer and when God created summer, he created a masterpiece. Not a 

summer day goes by that I do not thank Him for the summer. 

I need to get one thing quite clear. I am not one of those who lay out in the sun to get a suntan. That is 
not my cup of tea... or rather glass of lemonade. I do not fault those who lay out in the sun to get what 
they call a suntan. Rather, I feel sorry for those old saps. Why ruin a good day by laying in the sun? 

I had one bad sunburn in my life. It happened on our honeymoon. My wife and I were married in 
August in the year of our Lord 1971. Upon common consent, we chose for our honeymoon location 
Niagara Falls. 

The motel we stayed in had a marvelous swimming pool. At the time, my companion in nuptials and 
I thought we were living the life of luxury. This was the first time we had been on our own and we 
were going to enjoy it to the hilt. Too bad we could not afford a Hilton. 

Late that morning we walked several blocks down the street and treated ourselves to our first lunch 
as a "till-death-do-you-part" twosome. I am not sure what we ate, all I remember is the company was 
terrific. After lunch, we decided to spend some time at the poolside. 

Being unaccustomed to the life of luxury I did not know what the rules were. So, in my sheer ignorance 
I decided to sit by the pool and luxuriate in the beautiful August sun. Obviously, I was more 
tired than I realized and fell into a wonderfully deep sleep. 

Finally, I began to hear a voice I recognized and soon began to understand some of the words. "Do 

you know it's almost time for supper?" 

I opened my eyes and tried to smile. My face would not smile. In fact, my face felt rather hot. Then 
the rest of my body joined in the fiery chorus informing me that every bit of my body was ablaze. I 
had a sunburn to beat all sunburns. I could not move. I could not get up from the lounge chair. 

A short journey into panic-land brought me into full consciousness. With great care and with the 
help of my new wife I was able to get into our room. I laid down in the bed with every corpuscle in 
my body screaming in protest. The more I lay there the hotter I became. I heard of hot bridegrooms 
on their wedding night but this was not how I pictured it. 

Fortunately, we had planned to stay in the motel for a week and for a week exactly, I lay in my bed 

unable to move without excruciating pain. 

Ever since that time, I have had a great deal of respect for the summer sun. Even though I had that 
one bad experience, I have never blamed it on the summer season. Rather, I have reveled in what the 
Bible teaches. "And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them 
who are the called according to his purpose" (Romans 8:28). 
It is in the "all things" that I discover God's love for me. 

Dr. James L. Snyder is pastor of the Family of God Fellowship, 1471 Pine Road, Ocala, FL 34472. The church web 
site is 

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