Mountain Views News, Combined Edition Saturday, September 25, 2021

MVNews this week:  Page 11


 Mountain Views News Saturday, September 25, 2021 



[Nyerges offers classes and books in urban self-reliance and survival skills. Details can be 
seen at] 

In parts of the world with challenging 
living standards, clean 
drinking water cannot be taken 
for granted. Though there are 
many things in the water around 

the world that can get us sick, the three major health 
risks to humans found in water are Protozoa, Viruses, 
and Pathogens. Each one of those categories of 
water-borne organisms pre-sents their own unique 
health hazards. 
Of these, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most 
common both which pose serious health risks. An 
infection with these protozoans may cause chronic 
digestion problems which lead to malnutrition. Both 
pathogens have a cystic stage, which makes them 
re-sistant to environmental influences, allowing 
them to survive for long periods of time outside any 
FIRE IS BEST, BUT NOT ALWAYS POSSIBLEIn the United States, most campers assume water should be boiled for a period of ten minutes, before drinking, 
just to be safe. In some countries, however, the ability to boil water has proven to be a major obstacle, 
in large part because of a lack of fire-wood. Research shows all pathogens in the water are dead when the 
water reaches around 170 degrees F. (or about 75 degrees C), so, in fact, simply bringing the water to a boil 
is sufficient. 
But what if you simply cannot, or don't deem it wise, make a fire to purify your water? Is there an alternative?
According to various international agencies, such as EAWAG (Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental 
Science and Technology) and SANDEC (Department of Water Sani-tation in Developing Countries), clear 
plastic water bottles can serve a valuable role in disinfecting water.
This is referred to as SODIS, for SOlar water DISinfection. So how does it work exact-ly? The effectiveness 
of SODIS takes advantage of the suns UV rays and the process of pasteurization.
Here are the steps.

1. Select a clear PET plastic bottle, free of scratches and dirt. These are relatively common and available 
2. Fill the bottle ¾ of the way with clear water and shake to aerate. (If the collected water is cloudly, or 
contains suspended debris, it should first be allowed to settle in another container, like a bucket. Then, the 
water should be strained through a cloth before being poured into the plastic bottle.)
3. Fill the bottle the rest of the way and secure the lid tightly. 
4. Expose the suspect water to the sun by laying the bottles on their side, either on a roof or somewhere 
where shadows will not be cast on them, or ideally on a corrugated metal roof.
5. Wait about 6 hours during full sunlight before you drink the water. 
Limitations of SODIS 

Though very effective, SODIS is not free of limitations. For one, adequate sunlight is necessary. 


• 6 hours if the sky is cloudless or up to 50% cloudy. 
• 2 consecutive days if the sky is more than 50% cloudy. 
• 1 hour at a water temperature of at least 122°f 
• During days of continuous rainfall, SODIS does not perform satisfactorily. Rainwater harvesting or 
boiling is recommended during these days 
Also you need to use clean bottles that are dirt-free and free of scratches. Scratches and dirty bottles inhibit 
the effectiveness of SODIS. Use only clear plastic bottles, not colored bottles. 

Standing bottles up does not work well. For maximum effectiveness, you want to lay the bottles on their side 
and you don’t want water deeper than ten centimeters for ideal UV penetration. 

It is important to note that SODIS does not produce sterile water. Organisms other than human pathogens, 
such as algae, are well adapted to the environmental conditions in the SODIS bottle, and may even grow 
there. However, algae does not pose a danger to human health. 

Advantages of using SODIS 

Obviously, this is a good method if you do not have the option of building a fire when you want to purify water. 
You can also process gallons and gallons of water at a time, provided you have enough bottles to do so. 

There is quite a bit of science behind SODIS, far beyond the scope of this article. For this interested, more 
information can be found at 


Jewel is a 9 month old short haired 
tuxedo female Kitty with the cutest 
little black nose! Jewel was living on 
the streets when she became pregnant 
at 4 months old! She was taken 
in by a kind neighbor so she could 
nurse her ba-bies, but nobody wanted 
her once all the babies went to the 
new homes. She can be a little on the 
shy side, but really loves to be petted 

and given atten-tion, and treats. She's a very laid-back kind of girl. 
Her favorite thing to do is to run around and play with her best friend, El Gringo. Jewel is 
spayed, up-to-date on her vaccines, microchipped, and combo tested negative for FIV and 
FELV. Born 1/2021.

El Gringo is a short haired orange tabby and white male Kitty. El Gringo is around 6 months 
old. He was found living in a bicycle basket, outside and alone. He has a bit of a wild child 
streak to him, lots of energy and extremely playful and very smart. His favorite thing to do 
is to run around with his bestie, Jewel. El Gringo is up-to-date on his vaccinations, has been 
neutered, and combo tested negative for FIV and FELV. Born 3/2021. 

Pet of the Week

 Six-year-old Lulu enjoys burrowing under blankets,
getting wild on catnip, and being pet. She also enjoysdrinking water out of the sink, and will even chase hertreats if you throw them across the floor! Lulu has thesweetest purring meows and is the kind of cat you couldhave a full conversation with. She loves climbing into herfoster parent’s lap while she’s working, so she would makea great work-from-home companion. No matter whatyou’re doing, Lulu just wants to be around you!

 The adoption fee for cats is $100. All cat adoptionsinclude spay or neuter, microchip, and age-appropriatevaccines.

 New adopters will receive a complimentary health-andwellness 
exam from VCA Animal Hospitals, as well as agoody bag filled with information about how to care for your pet.

View photos of adoptable pets and schedule an adoption appointment at pasadenahumane. 
org. Adoptions are by appointment only, and new adoption appointments are available everySunday and Wednesday at 10:00 a.m. 

Pets may not be available for adoption and cannot be held for potential adopters by phonecalls or email. 




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