Mountain Views News, Combined Edition Saturday, July 1, 2023

MVNews this week:  Page B:4



Mountain Views-News Saturday, July 1, 2023 


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more 
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, 
provide for the common defence, promote the general 
Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and 
our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for 
the United States of America.


Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a 
Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2

The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the 
several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the 
Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous 
Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have 
attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven 
Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he 
shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned 
among the several States which may be included within 
this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which 
shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of 
free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term 
of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of 
all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made 
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress 
of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of 
ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The 
Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every 
thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one 
Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, 
the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse 
three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New 
Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland 
six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, 
and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any 
State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of 
Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker 
and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of 

Section 3

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, 
for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence 
of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may 
be into three classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first 
Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, 
of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, 
and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, 
so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if 
Vacancies happen by Resignation or otherwise, during the 
Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting 
of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to 
the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an 
Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a 
President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, 
or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the 
United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or 
Affirmation. When the President of the United States is 
tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall 
be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the 
Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend 
further than to removal from Office, and disqualification 
to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under 
the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless 
be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and 
Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for 
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each 
State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at 
any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as 
to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, 
and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, 
unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns 
and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority 
of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a 
smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, 
in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House 
may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, 
punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the 
Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings and 
from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts 
as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas 
and Nays of the Members of either House on any question 
shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered 
on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, 
without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than 
three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a 
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, 
and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They 
shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the 
Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance 
at the Session of their respective Houses and in going to 
and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate 
in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for 
which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office 
under the Authority of the United States, which shall have 
been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been 
encreased during such time; and no Person holding any 
Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either 
House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House 
of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur 
with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of 
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a 
Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he 
approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his 
Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, 
who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two 
thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be 
sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by 
two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all 
such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined 
by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting 
for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of 
each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by 
the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it 
shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, 
in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress 
by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it 
shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence 
of the Senate and House of Representatives may be 
necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be 
presented to the President of the United States; and before 
the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or 
being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to 
the Rules and Limitation prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, 
Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide 
for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United 
States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform 
throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among 
the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform 
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign 
Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the 
Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by 
securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the 
exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on 
the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and 
make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of 
Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two 

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the 
land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws 
of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the 
Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be 
employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to 
the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, 
and the Authority of training the Militia according to the 
discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, 
over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as 
may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance 
of Congress, become the Seat of Government of the 
United States, and to exercise like Authority over all 
Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of 
the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of 
Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other 
Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of 
the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the 
States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand 
eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed 
on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be 
suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion 
the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless 
in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before 
directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of 
Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those 
of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, 
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in 
Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular 
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of 
all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: 
And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under 
them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress accept 
of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind 
whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin 
Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold 
and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any 
Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the 
Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay 
any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what 
may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection 
Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid 
by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of 
the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall 
be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any 
Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of 
Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another 
State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless 
actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not 
admit of delay.


Section 1

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his Office 
during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice 
President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature 
thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the 
whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which 
the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator 
or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or 
Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote 
by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not 
be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And 
they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and 
of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall 
sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the 
Government of the United States, directed to the President 
of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open 
all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. 
The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be 
the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole 
Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than 
one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of 
Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person 
have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List 
the said House shall in like manner chuse the President. 
But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by 
States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; 
A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or 
Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, 
after the Choice of the President, the Person having the 
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice 
President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the 
Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the 
Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; 
which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen 
of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; 
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall 
not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been 
fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

Mountain Views News 80 W Sierra Madre Blvd. No. 327 Sierra Madre, Ca. 91024 Office: 626.355.2737 Fax: 626.609.3285 Email: Website: