Mountain Views News, Sierra Madre Edition [Pasadena] Saturday, June 3, 2017

MVNews this week:  Page A:11

Mountain Views-News Saturday, June 3, 2017 11THE WORLD AROUND US 
Mountain Views-News Saturday, June 3, 2017 11THE WORLD AROUND US 
Enceladus—a large icy, oceanic moon of Saturn—
may have flipped, the possible victim of an out-ofthis-
world wallop.

While combing through data collected byNASA’s Cassini mission during flybys of Enceladus,
astronomers from Cornell University, the Universityof Texas and NASA have found the first evidence 
that the moon’s axis has reoriented, according tonew research published in Icarus.

Examining the moon’s geological features, thegroup showed how Enceladus appears to havetipped away from its original axis by about 55degrees.

“We found a chain of low areas, or basins, that 
trace a belt across the moon’s surface that we believe 
are the fossil remnants of an earlier, previous equatorand poles,” said lead author Radwan Tajeddine,
research associate in Cornell’s Department ofAstronomy and a Cassini imaging team associate.
“Their pattern reflects spatial variations in the icyshell, consistent with a variety of geological featuresvisible in Cassini images.” 

At the moon’s current southern end, active 
jets discharge water vapor (as well as organiccompounds, gases, salts and silica) through ventsfrom an ocean deep beneath the moon’s icy-crustsurface. It’s a place technically known as the southpolar terrain, and astronomers have nicknamed thelong, geologically active fractures “Tiger Stripes”—
each about 80 miles long and a little over a milewide. 

Tajeddine believes an asteroid may have struckthe moon’s current south polar region when it wascloser to the equator in the past. “The geologicalactivity in this terrain is unlikely to have been

initiated by internal processes,” he said. “We thinkThe south is active and geologically young, whilethat, in order to drive such a large reorientation ofthe north is covered in craters and appears muchthe moon, it’s possible that an impact was behindolder. 
the formation of this anomalous terrain.” “The differences Cassini has observed between 

Wobbly, rickety and unsteady after an asteroid’sthe north and south poles remains peculiar,” 
smack, the physics of Enceladus’ rotation would Tajeddine said. “Originally, the poles of Enceladushave eventually re-established stability, a processwould have been the same, more or less, before 
that likely took over a million years. To do that, thetrue polar wander occurred. The true polar wandernorth-south axis needed to change—a mechanismhypothesis seems very plausible when we take acalled “true polar wander.” combined look at the patterns of highs and lows

Enceladus’ topographic and geological featuresacross the moon’s surface, the physical appearancecan be explained through geophysical processes, butof surface features and the differences between the 
the moon’s north and south poles are quite different. current poles.” 


Widely introduced as an ornamental in the United States, theseeds make good food 

 [Nyerges has been teaching

ethno-botany since 1974, and isthe author of 16 books, including “Foraging California,”
“Guide to Wild Foods,” “Foraging Wild Edible Plants ofNorth America,” “Nuts and Berries of California,” and 
others. Information on his classes and books is available 
at, or Box 41834, EagleRock, CA 90041.]

Where I grew up, our street was lined with stately andaromatic camphor trees, with their oval-shaped leavesthat perfumed the air with camphor when you crushedthem. The fruits were little globose fleshy fruits about aquarter inch in diameter, with one seed inside. There wasone tree, however, whose leaves looked like the camphor,
but the fruit did not. It had a hard little pod that looked 
like a miniature wooden canoe. Inside the pod were 
about a dozen orange seeds. I’d assumed it was a typeof a camphor, or just one of those ornamentals fromsomewhere else with no practical uses at all.

I eventually learned that this tree is from Australia,
where it is called a kurrajong, and a bottle tree in theUnited States. The Latin name is Brachychiton populneus.
As far as I knew, this was one of those many inappropriatelytransplanted trees into Southern California from Australia,
trees that were brought here as ornamentals or perhapslumber, such as Eucalyptus, or Acacia. Those have some 
good food and medicinal values, but I’d assumed that theBrachychiton was somewhat useless. It was just that oddtree with the hard canoe-shaped pod.

Biologists who track the movements of non-native 
plants point out that though the kurrajong is regarded asinvasive to those parts of Australia where it was introducedby landscapers. It has also been planted far and wide aswere roasted, again tasting even more like corn. At least 
an ornamental, in South Africa, in the United States from two thought that the flavor of the seeds was more likeCalifornian and Arizona down into the Southern states, sunflower seeds. 
and throughout the Mediterranean regions of the world. InNext, I took the roasted seeds and ground them in afact, though certainly not as widespread as the eucalyptuscoffee grinder. This produced an obviously oily goldentrees, kurrajongs will grow wherever eucalyptus can grow.flour, that would cake up in some places.
Recently one of my students brought me some of theI put two heaping teaspoons of the golden flour intopods, asking me to identify it, and asking me if it had anymy drip coffee filter and produced a somewhat opaquevalue. I confirmed that it was Brachychiton, and justgoldenish beverage. The fragrance is somewhat like burntfor the heck of it, I looked it up in a few of my books oncorn, and the flavor is reminiscent of a grain beverage.
the flora of Australia, and the bush foods of the native It produced a pleasant drink, not strongly flavored oneAboriginal people. I learned that the yellow seeds insideway or the other. I would not compare it to coffee, exceptthe pods were eaten by the Aboriginals, and that they werethat both are warm beverages. Kurrajong drink hasquite nutritious. According to a study by the University ofnone of the bitterness of coffee, though I could detectSydney, these seeds contain about 25% fat and about 18%a slight astringent undertaste. The flavor is very muchprotein. The study also stated that 100 grams of the seedenhanced with a sweetener, like honey. I think that anyonecontains about 348 calories. (Peanuts, by contrast, containyou served this to would find it at least acceptable, andabout 567 calories per 100 grams.)probably enjoyable. I can see using this alone, or as a coffee

My references were a bit scant about how exactly theseextender, in much the same way that chicory is used.
were used, except that sometimes they were eaten raw, andI then took some of the ground up kurrajong seedsometimes roasted. flour, and mixed it half-and-half with some wheat flour. 

I did learn -- the hard way – that you need to be carefulI blended it well, and then cooked it like damper in a hotwhen you clean each seed of the outer coating, which isskillet. The batter had that dark golden color of the seed,
covered in a very fine fuzz. When I first learned that theseand it had texture. We cooked them well, and five of us 
were edible, I picked a few of the dark yellow, fuzz-coveredtried them without honey or topping. Everyone like them, 
seeds out of the pod, and just rubbed them between myeven the children. There was an initial burnt corn flavor, 
hands in order to remove the fuzzy chaff. The fuzz is and just a very slight astringency in the mouth. As youvery fine and it’s not a serious irritant, but I did feel it, andchewed, it seemed almost oily, like eating peanut butter.
afterwards, I needed to wash my hands well. The seed I could see that some people might not care for the flavor,
coating also imparted a yellowish pigment to my skin,as it was distinctive, not bland like a wheat flour pancake.
which washed off readily.To me, the flavor was reminiscent of burnt corn, and was 

Several of us then tried the raw seeds. They’re hard atactually very tasty to my palate.
first, but they softened up in our mouths. They become We made a batch of several damper-pancakes, and wechewy, with a flavor reminiscent of corn. Everyone wasate them all! That says it all. I believe that the flavor wouldsurprised that these odd fruits had a good-tasting greatly enhanced with a jelly or butter topping. I plan

I then took my cleaned seeds, bright yellow, and placedto experiment more with this food, and believe it can stillthem in a cast iron skillet over the fire and roasted them. I be a very important modern-day bush food. 
didn’t use oil, but just shook the skillet from time to timeover an approximately 15 minute period. I heard some REFERENCES: 
seeds pop, but mostly they just faded from a bright yellowPersonal contact: Daniel Sainty, Australiato a dull yellow bordering on brown. I did this during an“Bush Foods: Aboriginal Food and Herbal Medicine” byoutdoor class I was conducting, and I let 8 students tasteJennifer Isaacs. Lansdowne Publishing, 1987.
the roasted seeds. Everyone though the seeds had been“Wild Food Plants of Australia” by Tim Low, Angus andgood raw, but they were very much improved when they Robertson Publishers, 1988. 

which are known to support life on the seafloor.
******* Hydrothermal vent communities on Earth areable to sustain life because vent organisms depend

WHAT’S UNDER THAT ICY CRUST? on chemosynthetic bacteria for food. The waterMeanwhile, scientists from Southwest Research from the hydrothermal vent is rich in dissolvedInstitute recently announced the discovery ofminerals and supports a large population ofhydrogen gas in the plume of material erupting fromchemoautotrophic bacteria. These bacteria useEnceladus. Analysis of Cassini data indicates thatsulfur compounds, particularly hydrogen sulfide—athe hydrogen is likely produced through chemicalchemical highly toxic to most known organisms—
reactions between the moon’s rocky core and warmto produce organic material. 
water from its subsurface ocean. The discoverysuggests that Enceladus’ ocean floor could includeYou can contact Bob Eklund at: b.eklund@ 
features similar to hydrothermal vents on Earth,


A Weekly Religion Column by Rev. James Snyder 


I do not want to alarm anyone – I’m not wound confidentially to me. “Look at how they are 
that tight – but there is a devious conspiracy in dressed.” 
our country. A cabal of murderous distortions.Frankly, I did not know what in the world she 

To be quite honest about all this, I was not the was referring to but I looked in the direction she 
first to notice this conspiracy. In fact, it is quite was indicating.
unusual for me to notice anything first. As all When it comes to fashion, I don’t make a 
husbands know, the husband is the last to know . statement. My idea of fashion rests on two simple 
. . anything.facts. Does it fit and can I afford it? 

It was the Gracious Mistress of the Parsonage I’m a rather happy-go-lucky kind of guy when it 
who first become aware of this conspiracy and comes to clothing. Where in the Constitution of 
brought it to my attention. I like to give credit the United States does it say that a person has to 
where credit is due, unlike some banks I know of, wear matching socks?
or who know me. However, women, wives in particular, have a 
This is not the first time something like this has different sense about all this. 
happened. Don’t ask me how she does it, for I do “Why would anyone,” she continued, ignoring 
not know. I just wish I knew her secret. My wife my blissful ignorance on the subject, “leave their 
is the first to notice everything.home dressed like that?” 

Let me give a few examples so you know what I Of course, I had not the faintest idea what was 
mean. My wife was the first one to notice that we causing her so much distress. She then pointed 
were going together as a couple. She was the first out something I never thought of before.
to notice that we were engaged to be married. People were dressed in the worst possible 
And, she was the first to know that we were fashion, according to her: plaids with stripes; 
getting married and when.clothes so tight you could see their blood 

If it was not for her acute sense of observation, pulsating through their veins.
I would never have noticed any of those things, How people get into such clothes is beyond me. 
and believe me, it is important to notice those My only conclusion is, that they are born in those 
things. If you don’t think so, forget just one clothes. 
sometime. Perhaps the biggest question I might have is, how 
Back to the the world do they ever get out of their clothes 

Several weeks ago, my wife and I took a few at night?
days off and stole away to the romantic town of St. And then the hair. I never took notice before, 
Augustine for some R&R&R, (Rest, Relaxation but as my wife pointed out to me, some people 
and Reading) the three most important pursuits have really bad hairdos.
of mankind. Just as she pointed this out to me, in walked 

I like St. Augustine because it is the only thing a person – male or female, I don’t know – with 
I know older than most of my neckties.their hair greased up in points. Each point was a 

I remember what my good friend and spiritual different color. 
mentor, the Reverend Frank Simmons used to The only blue hair I had seen was Aunt Erma’s 
say, “Either come apart and rest awhile or you back in Pennsylvania.
will simply come apart.”“You would think,” my wife commented, 

And, as one who has come apart several times, “that these people did not have mirrors in their 
I know it to be true. Therefore, my wife and I, homes.” 
just before “coming apart,” take off and get outta Then it struck me. I think my wife has hit upon 
Dodge.something rather sinister. I’m only hoping it is 
One afternoon in St. Augustine, we decided not the work of some terrorist group, although 
to take in the local mall. I say “we” only in the there is a certain amount of terror in the thought.
loosest sense of the word. Personally, I would Based on the evidence at hand, I must conclude 
rather hit my thumb with a hammer than spend that someone, or some group of people, have been 
an afternoon at the mall. stealing mirrors from the homes of unsuspecting 
When you are as happily married as I am (knock people.
on wood), there are those little sacrifices that The evidence is too overwhelming to ignore. 
must be made. That’s just the kind of husband I If people had mirrors in their homes they never 
am. would leave home without looking at themselves.

I know what you’re thinking. But it has nothing Reflecting on this I was reminded of something 
to do with any alleged repercussions if I don’t. I had read in the Bible. 
Okay, maybe “nothing” is a little strong in this “For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a 
case. doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural 

The fact of the matter is, I joyfully accompanied face in a glass: For he beholdeth himself, and 
my wife to the mall. About halfway through our goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what 
afternoon at the mall, we sat down in a small manner of man he was” (James 1:23-24).
coffee shop to enjoy a cup of Joe together.Being happy with yourself on the inside is 

Nothing relaxes me more than spending $6 for much better than being happy with yourself on 
a .59-cent cup of coffee.the outside. 
It was while we were enjoying our coffee that 
my astute wife made an observation.Dr. James L. Snyder is pastor of the Family of 

Actually, it struck me out of left field, if I can be God Fellowship, 1471 Pine Road, Ocala, FL 34472. 
honest about it. I was too busy grumbling about He lives with his wife in Silver Springs Shores. Call 
the cost of the coffee to really take notice of what him at 352-687-4240 or e-mail jamessnyder2@att.
was happening around me at the The church web site is www.whatafellowship. 

“Look at those people,” my wife whispered com. 

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